NED News Adviceline: Summer 2018

I have a long-term health condition but I recently had my Personal Independence Payment (PIP) reduced after a re-assessment. I want to challenge the decision – where do I start?

There are two stages to challenging your PIP assessment decision. The first stage is known as mandatory reconsideration and involves asking the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) to take a second look at your assessment decision.

Normally, you’ll need to contact the DWP within a month of your assessment decision being made, and it’s best to do so in writing. Under some circumstances, you can ask for mandatory reconsideration up to 13 months from your assessment decision date.

Your letter should list all the reasons why you don’t think your PIP award should be reduced. Make sure you provide evidence to back up each point you make, such as practical examples, medical records and supporting letters from specialists who are treating you. If you don’t have the required evidence available, you can submit it separately at a later date.

Once the DWP has looked again at your assessment decision, you’ll receive a Mandatory Reconsideration Notice which says if your request has been successful or not. If it is, your original award will be reinstated and your payment backdated.

If you’re unsuccessful, you could choose to progress to the second challenge stage. This is where you appeal your assessment decision by taking your case to tribunal. For help filling in the tribunal form and preparing for your hearing, contact your nearest Citizens Advice or visit the website.


 

I am over 25 and entitled to the National Living Wage, but I suspect I am being underpaid. How can I find out if I’m being paid the right amount, and claim what I am owed from my employer?

If you think you’ve been underpaid, you should act quickly, as it’s harder to get your money back three months after the problem arose.

Check your payslip to see if there’s been some mistake. You will be able to see the number of hours you’ve worked, the rate you’ve been paid at and if there have been any deductions.

Ask your employer to explain anything you don’t understand on your payslip, and tell them why you think you have been underpaid. If there was a genuine mistake, ask your employer to pay you straight away. You shouldn’t have to wait until the next payday.

If your employer refuses to pay back your wages you can formally raise a grievance, either by writing a letter to your employer or following your company’s grievance procedure. Explain that you haven’t been paid enough and you want them to pay the difference.

If this still doesn’t work, you can take your employer to a tribunal. Contact the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS), who will see if your employer will agree to a conciliation process, rather than go to court. Otherwise you can take your employer to a tribunal. Think carefully before starting a tribunal claim as it can be expensive and stressful.

If you need any advice or guidance through this process, contact your nearest Citizens Advice.


 

I do not think the company that sold me a doorstep loan carried out proper affordability checks and now I cannot afford to pay it back. Can I get a refund?

The Financial Conduct Authority – which regulates the doorstep loan market – says a loan is unaffordable if you cannot make repayments without borrowing again.

Lenders must check your finances and situation – including future income and spending – to make sure you can pay back the loan.

You might feel your agreement was unaffordable if you were given a loan that was more than you could manage to repay and it caused you problems.

If you think you are owed a refund, first complain to your lender. List the ways you think their affordability checks were not properly done, the problems this has caused, and what you would like to happen.

The lender must acknowledge your complaint promptly and has eight weeks to respond formally or resolve your problem.

If you are not happy with their response, or they don’t respond at all, you can complain to the Financial Ombudsman Service using a form on its website.

Should the lender agree with your complaint, they may agree to write off the balance left on the loan or refund some of the interest you have paid.

If they don’t, and you have to take your complaint further, the Ombudsman can force the lender to write off the interest or even the remainder of the loan, and possibly order them to pay a small amount of compensation for your distress if they uphold the complaint.

The Ombudsman’s decision is binding on your lender.

NED News Adviceline: Spring 2018

My gym will only allow me to cancel my membership in person. This is written in the contract but I’ve since moved away from the area. What can I do?

To end your gym membership you will need to follow the terms of the contract. However, it’s also possible to challenge any terms which cause unnecessary hassle or are designed to keep you tied into the contract.

For this reason, you could try to challenge the term which states you need to end the contract in person.

Start by writing a letter or email explaining you want to end your membership and why you can’t do so in person. If writing a letter, it’s best to use signed for delivery so you have proof that the letter arrived.

If the gym won’t accept your written cancellation ask if they’ve got a complaints procedure in place which you can follow. If not, then send another letter giving them a final chance to end the contract.

If they still won’t agree to cancel your contract get in touch with an alternative dispute resolution (ADR) scheme – an independent complaints body which settles disputes. The gym may belong to one already, or should provide details of an approved scheme and say whether they’d be prepared to work with it.


I’ve just been hired by a cafe as a temp. My boss says that because I’m a temp, I’m not allowed to take any holiday. Is this right?

Your boss is wrong. As an employee, you’re entitled to take paid holiday regardless of the contract you’re on.

While they can refuse to give you leave at specific times, they can’t refuse you holiday pay altogether. If you can’t take time off during your contract you should receive your holiday pay in a lump sum at the end.

How much holiday you’re allowed depends on the length of your contract, and how many hours you work.

First, check how many hours you’re entitled to by using gov.uk’s calculator. Save a copy of the calculation to refer to.

Then speak with your boss and explain that you are entitled to either annual leave or pay in lieu of your holiday – you can refer to your employment rights on the Citizens Advice website. Give them a copy of your holiday calculation too.

If your boss refuses to give you time off or holiday pay, put your complaint in writing to them.

Should your boss still not give way, get in touch with ACAS, the free dispute resolution service that specialises in employment.

For further help understanding your options, contact your nearest Citizens Advice.

NED News Adviceline: Winter 2017

I’ve just started a new job and am being offered auto-enrolment for the first time. Do I have to join the scheme? I’m worried about meeting my living costs if I do.

Even if retirement is a long way off, or you’ve got immediate costs you need to cover it’s still worth starting a pension.

They are a great way to save for the future and can offer you financial security once you’ve stopped working. They’re also good value for money as your contribution gets topped up by both your employer and the government.

If you’re worried that auto-enrolment will make it harder for you to keep up with your living costs ask your employer how much your monthly contribution will be. Then add up the cost of your monthly expenses and take this away from your income, which should include your pension’s deduction.

It’s also worth seeing if you’re able to start receiving tax credits or a benefit such as Universal Credit to help with your living costs.

You will be automatically signed up to auto-enrolment so if you want to opt out you’ll need to tell your employer. Make sure you do this within one month to get a refund on the contribution you’ve made.

For further help understanding your options contact your nearest Citizens Advice.


 

I’m planning a long holiday and have been struggling to find travel insurance for a reasonable price. I’ve found a good deal from a Facebook advert but my friend thinks it might be a scam. How can I be sure if it’s legitimate?

Your friend is right to raise the possibility that it might be a scam and you should do some research on the company before making a purchase.

Insurance is a financial product and the seller must be registered with the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA). Check they’re listed on the financial watchdog’s register which can be viewed on its website.

If they’re not named, take your business to a different provider as the seller will not be legitimate. If they are listed, it’s still worth doing further checks on them.

A good starting point is comparing the price of the insurance deal with similar offers from competitors. Big discounts are often a tell-tale sign of a scam, but it could also be that the policy is cheap because it doesn’t provide adequate cover.

Ask for a copy of the full policy so you can check it against where you’re going and what you’re doing. If the seller won’t provide one, or says they will only give it to you it after you’ve paid, don’t give them your business.

Once you know the seller is legitimate use a secure payment method, such as a money transfer service like PayPal, to pay for the insurance. Don’t pay with a bank transfer, and don’t go ahead with the deal if they ask you to.

For further advice contact the consumer service or get in touch with your nearest Citizens Advice.


 

I am about to apply for Universal Credit for the first time, but have been told that there is a six week wait before the first payment. I’m worried that I won’t be able to pay my bills. Is this right, and is there anything I can do?

After applying for Universal Credit, there’s usually a five or six week wait before your first payment, which is explained during the application process.

Although you can’t be paid faster, there are things you can do to help tide you over.

As part of the claim process, you’ll usually attend an interview at the Jobcentre Plus.

At the interview ask if you can apply for an “advance payment” – this is a loan that will be deducted from your future benefits.

You’ll need to show how much money you need for essential bills like food and housing, and explain why the loan will protect you from serious financial difficulty – like being unable to pay your rent.

Alternatively, you can apply for an advance payment through the Universal Credit helpline on 0345 600 0723.

It’s best to apply as early as possible in your claim, as you may be turned down otherwise.

If you are refused an advance payment, you can ask the Jobcentre Plus for a reconsideration. Emergency assistance may be available if you are still turned down – Jobcentre Plus or Citizens Advice can inform of you of your next steps.

For help with your application or more information on managing your money, contact Citizens Advice.

NED News Adviceline: Spring 2017

I’ve ordered a vase online but it’s arrived broken. Is there anything I can do to get my money back?

It may seem logical to complain to the delivery company but it’s actually the responsibility of the retailer to ensure the item arrives in good condition.

Call or email their customer service department and explain the situation – you’ll find their contact details on the website or on your order form. You may be asked to email photos of the broken vase to prove it’s damaged.

You will then be offered either a refund or a replacement. It’s up to you which one you accept, but if you want a replacement ask for an estimated delivery date so you know when it will arrive.

Some retailers ask you to return items that arrive damaged. If that’s the case, you need to repackage the vase and stick the returns label provided on the front of the parcel. Include the returns form, specifying your reason for sending it back.

Depending on the retailer, you will either need to post the item through Royal Mail or they may offer to have it collected. You shouldn’t have to pay any postage costs.

If you asked for a refund you can expect to be reimbursed within 14 days of the retailer agreeing you’re entitled to one.

I bought a microwave two months ago but it’s broken already and won’t switch on. I went back to the retailer and they said they could have a go at repairing it, but I may have to pay a fee. Should I have to pay to get it fixed?

If your microwave is broken and it’s not your fault you shouldn’t have to pay the retailer to repair it.

Because you bought your microwave less than six months ago – you have the right to return it and get a free repair, a replacement or a refund. This applies whether you bought the item online or from a shop.

Check your retailer’s returns policy to see how you should return it – some will collect it for free, while others ask you to return it through a delivery service or to a store. You’ll need to show proof of purchase, such as a receipt or email confirmation, and explain the problem.

They should then offer to either replace or repair your microwave free of charge, if it’s repairable. If both options are possible, the retailer should consider which will be the quickest and most convenient for you when making a decision.

If your microwave is sent away for repair but still doesn’t work, you will be entitled to a full refund instead. You can also ask for a refund if your microwave is replaced with a different model.

I’m worried by how much money I spend on gas. My home is draughty and I turn the heating on even in summer. How can I cut my bills?

The good news is that there are a few different ways you can use less energy, and also pay less for what you use.

Start by finding out if you can get a lower price for your gas. Find a copy of your latest bill so you can see how much you’re paying per unit. Then use Citizens Advice’s online energy price comparison tool at https://energycompare.citizensadvice.org.uk/ to check if a different supplier is offering a cheaper deal.

If you do find a better offer, call or email the new supplier and ask to move to the tariff you’ve identified. They’ll inform your old supplier and switch you over to their supply. This normally takes 17 days.

You should also look into improving your insulation, such as getting draught excluders or cavity wall insulation. Energy Champions at Citizens Advice can help explain what could work best for your home and the potential costs involved.

Depending on your circumstances, you may be eligible for financial assistance to help you meet the cost of your bills, as well as any improvement works to your home.

NED News Adviceline: Winter 2016

I have a problem with rising damp in my flat, but I’m worried that if I complain my landlord will evict me. What should I do?

Until recently, landlords could evict tenants without a reason. However, a new law passed last year means it’s now illegal to evict tenants for reporting a problem with the property.

Start by checking your contract for when your tenancy began.  If it was on or after 1 October 2015, you are protected from eviction provided you report the problem using the right procedure.

First, write your landlord an email or letter explaining the problem. If they don’t respond within 14 days or respond with an eviction notice, contact the council who will inspect the property.

If the Council confirms with the landlord that there is a health and safety problem, any ‘no fault’ eviction notice is invalid and you won’t need to leave the property. The council will also advise the landlord on next steps, which could include being legally required to fix the problem.

If your tenancy began before October 2015 it’s not illegal for your landlord to evict you but it’s still unusual to do so.

Again, you should start by raising the problem in writing. If your landlord doesn’t offer to repair the damp, or serves you with an eviction notice, contact your local Citizens Advice straight away who will advise you on your next step.

I’ve just come back from a package holiday where our hotel was miles away from where we booked. We couldn’t contact anyone to change hotels, and had to pay to travel back and forwards to the destination we’d booked. Can I claim compensation?

It’s reasonable to ask for compensation when you haven’t got the holiday you paid for.

Your accommodation should be as agreed. If not, it’s usually considered a breach of contract.

You can’t claim the total cost of the holiday, but you can ask to be reimbursed for the extra travel costs, plus a fair sum for the change to your holiday.

Start by writing an email or letter to the tour operator’s customer services department. Give your booking reference number, explain your grievance and specify the amount of compensation you’d like.

As evidence for your claim, include the details of when you tried to contact your tour operator while you were away, and copies of any taxi or car hire receipts.

The firm may come back with an initial offer that is lower than what you are asking for, so be prepared to negotiate.

If you’re not offered any compensation, check your tour operator’s website to see if they belong to a UK trade body, like ABTA. If they do, you can lodge a new complaint through the trade body’s website. The tour operator is obliged to respond to the complaint.

Should you still not receive a satisfactory response, contact the Citizens Advice consumer service or visit www.citizensadvice.org.uk for guidance on your next steps.

I’ve applied for a job at an accountancy firm, but they’ve emailed to say that I would need to take a three month training course which costs £4,000 first. I’m keen on the job, but should I pay for the training?

Some employers do ask you to pay for training, but will normally take the cost from your wages rather than asking you to pay in advance.

Asking for up-front payments is one of the classic signs of a scam, so it’s important you do some research on the firm before parting with any cash.

Start by checking if they have a website. If there isn’t a website, they are unlikely to be legitimate.  Pay close attention to their email address too – look to see if they are using a personal email account such as Gmail or Hotmail, rather than one that’s branded.

Next, check how they describe their company – if they are an Ltd or Plc they should be listed on the companies house website. If you can’t find them there, they probably aren’t real.

You can also look the firm up on the internet to see what people are writing about it. People who suspect a scam or have been scammed, will often post on forums or social media. Genuine companies will usually have client reviews outside of just their own website.

If you spot something that doesn’t sit right and you want a second opinion, contact the Citizens Advice consumer service. If you think it might be a scam report it to Action Fraud.

NED News Adviceline: Summer 2016

I’m 55 and looking into my plans for retirement. I want to cash-in part of my defined contribution pension pot worth £60,000 but I’m confused about tax. How much can I take out of my pension pot tax-free and how much tax will I pay on the rest?

Pensions are taxable income, however special rules mean you can usually take up to 25% of your pension pot tax-free.

You can take your 25% tax-free lump sum out of your pension in one go. For your pension pot of £60,000, if you take a 25% tax-free lump sum you’ll get £15,000 tax-free. For the other £45,000, you’ll need to buy an annuity or drawdown product, which is subject to tax.

If you don’t want to take your 25% tax-free lump sum in one go, another option is to take multiple cash lump sums (UFPLS), rather than buying an annuity or a drawdown product. If you do this, you will get 25% tax-free of each lump sum. For example, if you were to take £1,000 per month out of your pension, £250 would be tax-free. The remaining £750 is taxable.

How much tax you pay on the rest of your pension will depend on how much you “earn” in any one tax year. This includes your state pension and some earnings from investments, such as property or savings. If your total income is less than your personal allowance of £11,000, you won’t pay any tax. If it is above £11,000 you’ll be taxed at 20, 40 or 45% as usual.

To find out more about your pension options, visit www.pensionwise.gov.uk

“My father recently had a stroke and I have cut down my working hours to care for him. He receives sick pay, but we are struggling financially. Is there any help available for us?”

Financial support is available for people when they become ill, as well as for their carers. What is available will depend on your circumstances.

Your father may be eligible for Personal Independence Payments (PIP) to help with his daily living and mobility costs. His eligibility will be assessed on how his condition affects him, and what support he needs.

To apply for PIP, your father can call the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) and then complete the form he is sent. He can request a form by post, but it is usually better to start the claim over the phone, as PIP payments are backdated from the day you made your claim.

 

There may also be help available for you as his carer. Carer’s Allowance is a financial assistance for people who have less time to work because they are caring for someone. If you earn £110 a week or less from your job after tax, and care for your father for 35 hours a week, you may be eligible.

You can make an application on the gov.uk website. To claim Carer’s Allowance, your father needs to be in receipt of the component of PIP which covers living costs (as opposed to mobility costs).

If you need help or information on applying for any of these benefits, contact your local Citizens Advice or go online at www.citizensadvice.org.uk.

I’m a self-employed woman and I’m thinking about starting a family. Am I able to take paid maternity leave?

Maternity entitlements are different for self-employed women but financial support is still available.

Self-employed women who have a baby may be entitled to a total of 39 weeks Maternity Allowance. The maximum weekly rate you can receive is £139.58 but it does depend what your individual circumstances are

In order to get the full amount you need to have worked (either employed or self-employed) for at least 26 out of the 66 weeks prior to your baby’s arrival. You should also have paid National Insurance contributions for at least 13 of those weeks and are required to have earned an average of £30 per week over 13 of the 66 weeks.

However, if you don’t meet all of these criteria it’s possible that you’ll still be able to receive some support.

You can put in a claim once your pregnancy reaches 26 weeks by filling in a MA1 claim form online or popping it in the post. The earliest you can receive the first payment is 11 weeks before your baby is due, or you can elect to start it as late as the day after the birth.

Employees often have ‘keeping in touch’ days and the same stands for self-employed workers. You can work for up to 10 days whilst receiving Maternity Allowance, but go over this threshold and you risk losing your allowance altogether.

If your household income isn’t enough to cover your costs you might also be entitled to further financial aid such as the Sure Start Maternity Grant or income-related social security benefits.

NED News Adviceline: Spring 2016

The Derbyshire Scam Watch is a project to raise awareness amongst older residents of the potentially harmful effects of massmarketing, internet, doorstep and telephone scams, and to provide one to one advice and support where potential scam/fraud victims are identified.

It is a partnership project led by North East Derbyshire Citizens Advice Bureau, working with Trading Standards, Derbyshire County Council and Age UK Derby and Derbyshire to deliver targeted home visits to scam victims, preventative outreach and promotion of prevention message. Local residents will be more aware of the potential harm from scams as a result of the publicity generated during the project.

Research has highlighted the following detriment to UK citizens from scams:

  • £5 billion – the estimated amount lost each year by UK
    consumers to mass-marketed scams via phone and post.
  • Nearly half of people in the UK (48 per cent) have been targeted by a scam
  • Every year more than three million people in the UK fall victim to scams losing hundreds, sometimes thousands, even hundreds of thousands of pounds.
  • Just five per cent of scams are reported.
  • Losses to vishing (phone) scams more than trebled in 2014 from £7m to nearly £24 million, according to Financial Fraud Action UK; 58 per cent of people reported receiving suspicious calls.
  • £495 million – the total cost of pension scams known to the Pensions Regulator
  • £670 million – the total annual cost to victims of the top ten online scams.

Scams can defraud people of thousands of pounds but most importantly rob them of their self-esteem, confidence and trust. Victims of one scam are very likely to become repeat victims as fraudsters sell-on information about vulnerable people.

More information, articles and useful data can be found at www.derbyshirescamwatch.org.uk

NED News Adviceline: Winter 2015

I’m struggling with around £18,000 worth of debt and I wondered whether I’d be eligible for a Debt Relief Order. I know the limit used to be £15,000 but I heard that it was increasing soon. Is that right?

A Debt Relief Order can be a way to help people out of unmanageable debt. From 1 October the debt limit for a DRO increases to £20,000 so you might now be eligible.

You could qualify for a DRO if you don’t your own home, have up to £1,000 worth of assets, a car worth no more than £1000 and have £50 or less left each month once you’ve paid your essentials.

Debts such as magistrate’s court fines, student loans and child support maintenance aren’t covered by a DRO but credit card debt, overdrafts, loans and rent arrears are so check first whether you’re eligible.

The DRO lasts a year and during that time you don’t have to make any payments towards most debts included in your DRO. Your creditors can’t force you to pay off the debts either.

At the end of the DRO period your debts will be written off but you’ll still be responsible for paying off any debts that weren’t included in the DRO.

It’s also important to consider that while a DRO can help you deal with your debt, it may affect your credit rating, and if, during the 12 month period you borrow more than £500 you have to tell the creditor about your DRO.

I’ve had a letter offering me the opportunity to invest in fine wine. The returns look really good and I’m tempted, but my friend says not to trust the letter in case it’s a scam. How can I tell if it’s genuine?

While there are lots of legitimate investments out there, your friend is right to warn you. Letters and cold-calls from unknown companies can be a scam. Investment opportunities can ask for large sums and you need to be completely confident before you put your money in.

First, do your research on the company. Investigate their website thoroughly and pay attention to where the company is registered. If it’s outside the UK, be on your guard – if it is a con, it will be difficult to get your money back. You could also look for industry bodies that oversee the sector to assist you with investment advice.

Next, check if the offer is realistic. Do some comparisons among similar companies for what the usual return is. If it looks too good to be true, it probably is.

Finally, look out for high-pressure sales tactics. The literature may ask you to contact them by phone. If a salesperson puts pressure on you to complete the deal straight away, or tells you not to tell anyone about it, it could be a scam.

For advice or to report a potential scam, get in touch with us on 01246 250890

I’ve just found out that a shop I’ve bought goods from has gone bust. How will this affect my consumer rights?

When a trader goes into administration its rights and responsibilities change. Depending on your situation you might end up losing out, so it’s important to know what you can do to protect yourself.

A common problem when shops go bust is what you can do if you have a gift card. Once they go into administration shops are under no obligation to continue to accept gift cards, although some may continue to do so. If you have a gift card then hold on to it, even if it isn’t being accepted, as the situation can change. This works both ways, so if a shop is taking vouchers then make sure you use them while you can.

If you’ve put down a deposit on an item that you have yet to receive, then whether or not you receive it will depend on whether it has been ‘earmarked’ for you. If it has then the shop should fulfil your order, but if not then you may not see the goods. If you’ve bought something, for example electrical or white goods, which become faulty then it might be easier to claim under the manufacturer’s guarantee.

You can log a complaint with the administrators which will add you on to the store’s list of creditors, but realistically most customers will be a long way down the list. If you used a credit or debit card you may be able to make a claim from your provider, and if the goods or services you bought came with a manufacturer’s guarantee or an insurance-backed guarantee, you may be able to make a claim under them. If the trader was a member of a trade association, contact them to see if they can help. You can find out more about what rights you have and what you can do if things go wrong, by going to  www.adviceguide.org.uk

NED News Adviceline: Summer 2015

I’ve heard that the new pension reforms mean that I will have full access to my pension pot when I turn 55. How do I work out what I should do with my pension savings?

The pension reforms that came in this April give people the freedom to access their defined contribution pension how and when they want. You can buy an annuity, or take your pension out in one go, or withdraw it bit by bit and leave some it invested. Planning for your retirement can be complicated so it’s important to get guidance on your options.

The good news is that the Government has introduced Pension Wise, a new free service offering guidance online, over the phone with The Pensions Advisory Service, or face to face with Citizens Advice. The appointments are pre-booked 45 minute sessions tailored to your individual circumstances. Guidance is impartial, meaning that it will not recommend products or services, but they will describe your options and help you consider their impact.

To get the most out of Pension Wise guidance, preparation is key. First, work out the value of your pension pots. Look at your most recent statement, or contact your provider. Check if there are any restrictions attached. Next, get a state pension forecast, and gather the details of any benefits you receive.

The next step is to work out your likely expenditure. Include the cost of essentials like housing or utilities, and leisure activities. This should give you a rough budget.

Bring the information to your Pension Wise appointment. Your guider will help you think through your circumstances, and present the options available to you.

I bought a new mobile phone six months ago, and I used the signal checker on the website, but I never have any signal at home or work at all. I want to cancel my contract and go back to my old mobile company as I always had good service with them, but my new provider says I’ll have to pay all 18 months of the contract remaining if I want to cancel. I can’t afford to pay that all at once and a new contract, but I also can’t have a mobile phone that never works when I need it. What can I do?

Most mobile phone contracts last 24 months, but often they don’t specify minimum standards of service, so it can be tricky to get out of them without paying a hefty fee. Your best bet is to keep a log of times when your phone doesn’t work. Then contact your service provider and ask them if there is anything they can do. This might solve the problem without you needing to cancel.

It might say something in your contract about how much reception you should get: if so you should be able to cancel the contract without paying. Unfortunately, you can’t rely on what an online coverage checker will say as they’re just a guide and will only ever give an idea of the average signal someone can expect outside in that area.

If the phone doesn’t work in your house or workplace but does work outside, the problem might be with those buildings themselves. In that case you wouldn’t normally be able to cancel without paying. It might be that the signal just isn’t strong enough, so you should ask your provider to carry out a signal strength check.

If there’s no signal in your whole area, you might be able to cancel under the Supply of Goods and Services Act. Very poor service most of the time might mean the network is breaking your contract. Some contracts have terms and conditions which mean they’re allowed to not provide service sometimes, so you need to get advice to see if this applies to you.

Before anything else, contact your service provider, share any evidence of poor service and explain why you should be let out of your contract early. They might well allow you to cancel.

And if you need more advice, contact your local CAB, or call our consumer service number on 03454 04 05 06

My relationship with my partner has broken down and we have two small children. I’m really worried that if this goes to court the judge will favour the children’s mother over me as their father for residence decisions, and that I won’t be able to afford a lawyer who can make sure that I keep my children living with me. What should I do?

Relationship break-ups can be incredibly stressful for any couple, but dealing with the situation sensitively is all the more important when children are involved.

It is not always possible, but the best option is for you to come to an agreement with your partner about the care of your children. Where this doesn’t resolve the issue, the next step is to get the help of a local family mediation service. Decisions made with this service are not automatically legally binding but it can be very helpful if you can use the opportunity to avoid the costly and sometimes acrimonious court system. It is also necessary to attempt mediation before taking the dispute to court.

As an unmarried father, you won’t automatically have a right to a say in your child’s future, even though you may be financially supporting them. This will depend on whether you have parental responsibility for your child. If you were named on your child’s birth certificate since 2003, you’ll automatically have parental responsibility. But don’t worry if you haven’t got it this way – there are other ways you can get it, including asking to the court for an order.

If you are still can’t agree about arrangements for your children, you may have to consider going to court as a last resort. But remember, this will cost you a lot of money and may take a long time. If you want the children to live with you, you’ll need to apply for a residence order. If the children will be living with their mother, you’ll need to apply for a contact order. This will set out the kind of contact you’ll have with your children, for example how often you can see them or take them away on holiday. It can be a good idea to apply to the court for both a contact order and a parental responsibility order at the same time, if you haven’t already got parental responsibility.

Legal aid is not available for the court proceedings of private family law cases. However you may be able to get legal aid to pay for help solving your dispute out of court, through a family mediation service, so this can be the ideal way to make arrangements for your children. Family mediation is an alternative to solicitors negotiating for you but not a substitute for legal advice. You will be encouraged to consult a solicitor during the mediation process to advise you on the personal consequences of your decisions. At the end of mediation, the decisions you have reached can be used as the basis for a divorce settlement, or a legal separation agreement. You can find out more about the availability of legal aid for family mediation at www.familymediationhelpline.co.uk, or on the National Family Mediation website at www.nfm.org.uk.

If you are thinking of going to court to deal with arrangements for your children, you should consult an experienced adviser, which you can do for free at a Citizens Advice Bureau.

NED News Adviceline: Spring 2015

HMRC has just contacted me to say that I owe them money as they have overpaid my Tax Credits. I didn’t realise that this could happen, and I don’t have enough money set aside to pay them back. What should I do?

Tax Credits are designed to give working people a little bit of extra income to help guarantee a decent standard of living from work.

Unfortunately, the system by which entitlement to Tax Credits is decided is complicated and can often lead to people falling into debt when they are asked to repay money they’ve wrongly been given by HMRC.

Tax Credits are gradually being phased into the Government’s new Universal Credit system, which is intended to reduce Credit miscalculations and overpayments.

However whilst we wait for the system to change, problems with the current process seem to be getting worse. Last year, Citizens Advice across England and Wales saw a 14 per cent increase in problems relating to debt caused by Tax Credit overpayments.

The combination of pressures on people’s living costs means that being asked to repay Tax Credits at the end of the year can be a real blow. Sky-high energy bills, expensive childcare and wages which are still failing to keep up with costs mean that it can be a real struggle for households make ends meet. The last thing hard-pressed households need is for HMRC to put them in more debt.

Often, HMRC will be willing to work with you to see what you can afford to pay back, but in many cases, poor communication and delays by the agency have led to our clients struggling to get a fair outcome.

If you’re struggling with debt then it’s important to take steps to get on top of your bills. Debt can seem impossible but there’s always a way out of problems.

If you come to us, we will be able to work out a debt management plan with free and impartial advice.

I have been struggling with my finances for a while, and now it’s got to the point where I can’t afford bills like council tax or my mortgage. I’m worried that if I can’t find a solution soon, I might have to sell my home. What can I do?

The months after Christmas can be particularly tough with extra expenses over the festive period putting even more pressure on household budgets. If you are facing New Year debts don’t panic. With the right help there are ways to get on top of your outstanding bills.

Firstly, the earlier you get help with debt problems the easier it is to get them sorted. Trying to carry on as if everything is normal can make things worse, as debts can pile up quickly. Letting your creditors, like your mortgage company or local council, know if you will be unable to pay them is key. Creditors should consider reasonable repayment plans and may be able to offer you more time to pay.

It is important that you prioritise paying certain debts, such as the rent, mortgage or energy bills, first to keep a roof over your head and the heating on. Depending on your circumstances you may be able to get support through benefits, so it is worth checking this with the Department for Work and Pensions. If you are unable to pay your council tax debt the local authority may agree to let you pay a reduced payment over a longer period or even in exceptional circumstances write off the debt, but you will have to keep paying your ongoing bill going forward.

Drawing up a proper budget of your expenses can help identify areas you can cut down on. Before you turn to a loan to cover costs, think carefully and find out what this means for any future repayments and interest that will be due on the loan. Citizens Advice Bureaux offer free, confidential and independent advice, can help work out costs and negotiate with your creditors, and may be able to help you get debt-free by looking at appropriate options available for you.

Someone has been going from door to door on my street and I’m concerned they might not be a legitimate trader. What should I do?

As a general rule it is worth trusting your instincts — if an offer sounds too good to be true, it probably is.

Scammers often use cold calling and doorstep sales to target victims, so before agreeing to anything or signing anything first tell someone you trust about the offer. Having this conversation with a family member, friend, or a good neighbour could stop you from losing money.

If a trader is offering you a deal take a moment to check out their details. Ask the trader if they belong to a professional organisation, such as TrustMark, and if they say they do, then phone the organisation or look on their website to check this is true.

Don’t agree to a deal on the spot that you have any reason to doubt. Legitimate traders should be happy for you to take their details and say you need more time to make a decision. Avoid handing over money before a job is started. A reliable trader won’t ask you to do this as they should have the money to cover materials until they are paid.

If you are concerned about an offer, think you may have been caught out by a rogue trader, or are concerned for a neighbour, you should call the Citizens Advice Consumer Service on our helpline on 03454 04 05 06. If you’ve fallen for a scam, report it to the Police and you can also report it to Action Fraud.

For further advice call North East Derbyshire CAB or visit your nearest bureau. See our website for details. www.nedcab.org.uk